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EAMCET | EAMCET 2018 | Syllabus | EAMCET Syllabus

Home » List of Examinations » EAMCET Examination » EAMCET Exam Syllabus

EAMCET Exam Syllabus

EAMCET Exam Syllabus



1. Functions - Types of functions -Algebra of real valued functions
2. Surds and Logarithms
3. Mathematical Induction and its applications
4.Permutations and combinations - Linear and Circular Permutations -Combinations
5. Binomial Theorem - for a positive integralindex - for any rational index - applications - Binomial coefficients
6. Partial Fractions
7. Exponential and LogarithmicSeries
8. Quadratic Expressions - Quadratic inequations
9. Theory of Equations - Relations between the roots andcoefficientsin any equation - Transformation of equations - reciprocalequations -cubic equations - Cardan's solution - Biquadratic equations- Ferrariand Decarte's solutions.
10. Matrices andDeterminants - Definition - Types of Matrices -Algebra of Matrices -Properties of determinants of 2X2 and 3X3 ordermatrices - SimultaneousLinear equations in two and three variables.
11. Complexnumbers - their properties - Demoivre's Theorem - Applications -Expansions of Trigonometricfunctions.


1. Trigonometricfunctions - Graphs - Periodicity
2. Trigonometric ratios ofcompound angles, multiple and sub-multiple angles
4. Trigonometric Equations
5.Inverse Trigonometric functions
6. Hyperbolic and inversehyperbolic functions
7. Properties of Triangles
8.Heights and Distances (in two dimensionalplane)


1. Algebra of Vectors
2. Scalar and Vector Products of Two vectors and theirapplications
3. Scalar and Vector triple products - Scalarand Vector products of four vectors


1. Addition andmultiplication theorems of probability - their applications -conditional probability and Baye's Theorem
2. Mean andVariance of a random variable - Binomial and Poissondistributions.


1. Locus - Translation andRotation of Axes
2. The Straight Line
3. The Pairof Straight Lines
4. Coordinate planes in three dimensions -distance between two points - section formula and their applications
5. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line - anglebetween two lines - projection of a line
6. The plane and itsgeneral equation - Equation of the plane in different forms
7. Circles and system of Circles
8. Conics -Parabola - Ellipse - Hyperbola - their applications - Equations ofTangent, Normal, Polar and Pole to these conics.
9. PolarCoordinates.


1. Functions - Limits - Continuity
2. Differentiation - Different Methods
3.Successive Differentiation including Leibnitz's Theorem
4.Applications of Differentiation
5. Partial Differentiationincluding Euler's Theorem on homogeneous functions
6.Different methods of Integration
7. Definite integrals andtheir applications to areas - reduction formulae.
8.Numerical Integration - Trapezoidal and Simpson's Rules
9.Differential equations - Formation and solution of first order, firstdegree differentialequations.



Fundamental units in the CGS& SI systems - Definitions of SI Units- Supplementary andderived units - Dimensions of Physical quantities -Application ofDimensional Analysis - uses - examples - Limitations ofdimensionalanalysis.

Errors in measurements - variation andaverage values - Numberof observations - Ideas of standard deviationand mean deviation-Systematic and random errors - Significant figuresand rounding off -Evaluation of percentage oferrors.


Addition and substraction ofVectors - Laws of addition ofvectors - Equal and null vectors - Unitvectors - Unit vectors inCartesian co-ordinate system - Position vectorand its magnitude -Parallelogram law of vectors- Expression for the resultant vector.

Triangle lawand polygon law of vectors - Application torelative motion of a boat ina river - Multiplication of a vector withscalar. Scalar product withExamples of work and energy. Vector productwith examples of torque andangular momentum. Vector and Scalarproducts of unitvectors.


Equations of motion in astraight line under uniformacceleration - Equation of motion of freelyfalling body, verticallyprojected body from ground and from a height -Two dimensional motion -Projectiles with examples - Path of aprojectile - maximum height, timeof flight andrange.

Newton's Laws of motion - Concepts of inertia,momentum force,impulse and types of forces - Collision of two bodies inone dimension- one body at rest - two bodies moving in the same andoppositedirections - Elastic and inelastic collisions - Coefficientofrestitution.


Definition and units -Expressions for P.E. & K.E. - Work-energy theorem - Law ofconservation of energy.


Definition - Co-ordinates ofcenter of mass - Velocity,Acceleration - Characteristics of center ofmass - Examples in the caseof two dimensional motions - Laws of motionof center of mass -Explosion.


Causes of friction - Static,Kinetic and rolling friction - lawsof friction - expressions foracceleration of a body on smooth andrough inclined planes (withoutrolling).


Rotatory motion -Relationships between quantities in rotatoryand linear motions -Centripetal and centrifugal forces - Concepts oftorque and couple -Relation between angular momentum and torque -Moment of inertia -Rotational kinetic energy - Parallel andperpendicular axes theorems -Expressions for the Moment of inertia ofa thin rod, sphere, circularring, uniform disc., cylinder andrectangular lamina - Conservation ofangular momentum with examples -Motion in a verticalcircle.


Kepler's laws ofplanetary motion - Newton's universal law ofgravitation - Expressionfor the relation between g & G - Variationof 'g' with height,depth, latitude and local conditions. Inertial andgravitational masses- Escape velocity and orbital velocity -geo-statonary satellites andtheir uses.


Definitions and examples -Expressions for displacement,velocity, acceleration, time period andfrequency - Expressions for theperiod of a simple pendulum and loadedspring - Force constant -Expressions for the KE & PE of a bodyin SHM.


Elasticity &plasticity - Stress - Strain, Hookes law -Modulii of elasticity (Y,n,K)- Poisson's ratio (s) - Relation betweenY,n,K and s - Behaviour of wireunder gradually increasing load -elastic fatigue - expression forstrain energy - experimentaldetermination of Y by Searle'sapparatus.


Surface tension - Definitionand examples - Molecular Phenomenon- Angle of contact - Capillaritywith examples in nature - Experimentaldetermination of Surface Tensionby capillary rise method withnecessary theory - variation of SurfaceTension with temperature -Expressions for excess pressure inside a dropand a bubble.


Principle of Buoyancy -Pressure in a fluid - Bernoulli's theorem - Aerodynamic lift and motionof spinning ball.


Stream line flow -Explanation of viscosity - Poiseuille'sequation - determination ofco-efficient of Viscosity - Variationwithtemperature.


Threecoefficients of expansion of solids their interrelationship -Determination of coefficient of linear expansion bymechanical levermethod - Application to Bimetallic thermostat.

Coefficientsof real and apparent expansion of liquids and therelation between them- Variation of density with temperature -Anomalous expansion of waterand its effects - Experimentaldetermination of real and apparentcoefficients by Regnault's methodand specific gravitybottle.

Volume and pressure coefficients of expansionof gases -Experimental determination of volume and pressurecoefficients byRegnault's & Jolly's bulb apparatus - Absolutezero - Kelvin'sscale of temperature - Boyle's law and Charle's law -Ideal gasequation.


Definition of calorie,thermal capacity, specific heat andlatent heats - Law of mixtures -Problems relating to specific heatsand latent heats and law of mixtures- Joule's law and Mechanicalequivalent of Heat (J). Three phases ofmatter and Triple point ofwater - Definition of specific heats of gasesCp & Cv - Isothermaland Adiabatic processes - Relationshipsbetween P,V & T - Externalwork done by an ideal gas duringexpansion - Internal energy -Statements and explanation of Zeroeth law,First and Second laws ofthermodynamics - RelationCp-Cv=R.


Nature and properties ofthermal Radiation - Prevost's theory ofheat exchanges - Emissive andabsorptive powers - Black body radiation- Kirchoff's law and itsapplication - Newton's law of cooling - Lawsof Black body radiation -Stefan's law, Weien's displacement law andPlanck's formula (qualitativetreatment only)


Propagation of sound - Waveequation -Velocity of sound in solids,liquids and gases - Variation ofvelocity of sound in gases withtemperature, pressure, density andhumidity. Natural and Forcedvibrations - Resonance with examples -Formation of stationary waves instretched strings - Laws of transversewaves along stretched strings -Experimental verification by sonometer -Beats - Definition andexplanation (Theory only) - Doppler effect -Formulae for apparentfrequency in specific cases - Applications andlimitations of Dopplereffect.


Determination ofvelocity of light by Focault's rotating mirrormethod - Its significance- Critical angle - Total internal reflection- Application to opticalfibres.

Lens maker's formula 1/f=(m -1) (1/R1+ 1/R2)- Defects ofimages - Spherical and Chromatic aberrations and theirelimination(Qualitative treatment) - Construction of Ramsden's andHuygens eyepieces. Dispersion of light - Formula for refractive indexof prism -Pure and impure spectra - arrangement to obtain pure spectrum-Description and working of spectrometer - Determination of angle ofaprism - Angle of minimum deviation and Refractive index -Dispersivepower of a prism.

Different kinds ofspectra - Emission spectra-Line, Band andContinuous spectra- Absorptionspectra - their significance -Fraunhoffer lines and theirsignificance.


Nature of light - Newton'scorpuscular theory - Huygen's wavetheory - Electromagnetic theoryQuantum Theory (Elementary ideas only)- Interference - Coherent sources- Young's double slit experiment -Phenomenon of diffraction - Fresneland Fraunhoffer diffraction -Diffraction at straight edge ( qualitativetreatment) - Polarization -Concepts of polarization - Production ofplane polarized light byreflection and double refraction(Polaroids).


Magnetic pole strength -Inverse square law - Magnetic inductionB - Formulae for magneticinduction on axial and equatorial line of abar magnet and a very shortbar magnet - Couple acting on a bar magnetplaced in a uniform magneticfield - Magnetic moment of a magnet -Tangent law - Deflectionmagnetometer - Comparison of magnetic momentsin Tan A and Tan Bpositions by equal distance method and null method -Verification ofInverse square law - vibration magnetometer -Experimental determinationof M and BH.

Magnetic materials Dia, Para, Ferro,Antiferro andFerrimagnetism - their properties - Electron theory ofmagnetism(qualitative treatment) - Permeability and Susceptibility(conceptsonly).


Coulomb's law - permittivity-Concept of electric field -Electric lines of force. Force on a chargein an electric filed ( F=Eq)- Electric potential - Potential due to apoint charge - Potentialenergy of a point charge in a uniform electricfield - Electron volt -Relation between E and V ( E =v/d) Capacitance,Dielectric constant -Parallel plate capacitor - Formula for Capacitance- Effect of di-electric on capacity (expressions only) - Formulae forresultantcapacitance when capacitors are connected in series andparallel -Energy stored in a capacitor - Effect of dielectric on theenergy -Types of capacitors and theiruses.


Ohm's law - Specificresistance - Conductance - Temperaturedependence of resistivity -Thermistor - Emf of a cell - Internalresistance and backemf.

Kirchoff's laws - Statement and explanation -Application toWheatstone's bridge for its balance condition - Metrebridge -Principle of potentiometer - Comparison of emf's ofcells.Determination of internal resistance of a primarycell.


Seebeck effect - Peltierand Thomson effects and theircoefficients - Variation of thermo emfwith temperature - Neutral andInversion temperatures. Application ofthermo couples.


Oersted's experiment - BiotSavart law - The Tesla Ampere law -Magnetic field near a long straightwire and at the center of acircular coil carrying current (expressionsonly) - Force on a movingcharge in a magnetic field (F=Q V X B ) -Force on a current carryingconductor in a magnetic filed - Forcebetween two straight parallelconductors carrying current - Definitionof Ampere - Fleming's lefthand rule - Force and Torque on current loopin a magnetic filed -Tangent Galvanometer expression for the currentconstruction andworking of a moving coil galvanometer - Shunt and itsuses - Conversionof moving coil galvanometer into ammeter andvoltmeter. Comparison ofMoving Coil Galvanometer with TangentGalvanometer - Electro magneticinduction - magnetic flux and inducedemf. - Faraday and Lenz laws -Fleming's right hand rule - Self andMutual inductances - Henry.


Discovery of electron - e/ melectron by Thomson's method -Charge of an electron by Millikan's oildrop method (Principle only)Photo electric effect - Laws ofphotoelectric emission - Einstein'sphoto electric equation and itsexperimental verification by Millikan'smethod - Photoelectric cells andtheir uses.

X-ray spectra - Mosley's law and itsimportance - Comptoneffect - Dual nature of matter - De Borglie'shypothesis (conceptsonly)


Composition of nucleus -Nuclear forces - Mass defect andbinding energy - Explanations withexamples - Discovery of neutron -Nuclear fission - Chain reaction -Principle and working of a Nuclearreactor - Nuclear fusion - Energy ofsun and stars (Carbon - Nitrogencycle and Proton- Proton cycle)-Elementary particles.


Junction Diode- Depletion layer - Barrier potential- Forwardbias and Reverse bias -Current - Voltage characteristics - Junctiondiode as half wave and fullwave rectifiers - Zener diode as voltageregulator - Transistors - pnpand npn transistors - Transistorcharacteristics - Transistor as commonemitter amplifier (Block diagramand qualitative treatment only)



ElectromagneticRadiation: Wave nature - Wave Characteristics: Wavelength - frequency -Wave number - units to express these quantities -relationship betweenthem.

Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen - different regionsof the spectrum- wave number of the spectral lines in these regions(Rydberg'sequation),. Lyman, Balmer , Paschen , Bracket and Pfundseries.

Atomic Models : Rutherford's model, meritsand demerits

Bohr's Model: Postulates - formulationof the model -Expressions for the energy and radius of the HydrogenAtomic orbitswith derivations - limitations. Zeemen, Stark effects -Sommerfieldsmodifications.

Quantum Numbers:Significance - writing quantum numbers for differentiating electrons inatoms - Pauli's exclusion principle.

Wave nature ofelectron: De-Broglie wave equation - Heisenberg'suncertainty principle, Schroedinger's equation (Cartesian coordinatesequationonly).

Orbitals: Shapes of s,p,d orbitals - orbitalsenergy sequence -aufbau principle - Hund's rule. Electronicconfiguration of elements(from atomic no: 1 to 30 by nlxmethod)

Stability and magnetic behaviour of atomsbased on concepts of electronicconfiguration.


Nuclear particles: (Protons,Neutrons) - isotopes, isobars, isotones andIsodiapheres.

Nucleus: Relative dimensions of atomand nucleus - nuclear massdefect - mass -energy relation - bindingenergy - n/p ratio - magicnumbers.

Nuclearreactions: Writing nuclear reactions in the shortestform of (M(a,b)M')notation, balancing - typical examples of nuclearreactions - nuclearfusion (proton) reactions - nuclear fission(uranium - 235) -Differences between nuclear and Chemicalreactions.

Radioactivity: Units of radioactivity(Curie, Rutherford andBacquerel) - natural and artificial radioactivity- disintegrationseries - Group displacement law.

Radioactive disintegration: Rate equation (noderivation) - decayconstant - half-life period - numerical problems onradioactivedisintegrations - Radioactive isotopes (O18, P32, U238, C14,I131)andtheir applications


Periodic Lawsand Periodic Table: Periodic laws based on atomicnumber and electronconfiguration - Structure of the long form of theperiodic table -s,p,d,f blocks - outer electronic configuration ofelements of s,p,d andf blocks.

Periodic trends: Trends down the group andacross the period in respectof atomic size, ionic radius, OxidationState, ionization potential,electron affinity and electronegativity -reasons for the trends.


Ionic Bonding: Nature, factorsfavourable for the bond formation- Effect of ionization potential,electron affinity and electronegativity - Born - Haber cycle for sodiumchloride crystal formation -Face centered cubic lattice structure ofsodium chloride - Bodycentered cubic lattice structure of cesiumchloride (diagramaticillustrations only) - coordination number of metalions in the crystalsof sodium chloride and cesium chloride. Propertiesof ionic substances.

Covalent Bond: Nature - octetrule and electron dot formula ofsimple molecules (BeCl2, BF3, CO2, NH3,H2O,PCl5, SF6, CH4, C2-H4,C2H6) - postulates of valence bond theory(qualitative treatment) -overlapping of orbitals - sigma and pi bonds -dipole moment(qualitative aspect) of simple molecules. (HCl, H2O, SO2,NH3, CH4-,CCl4) - properties of covalentsubstances.

Hybridization of Orbitals: sp, sp2,sp3,dsp3, d2sp3hybridizations - shapes of simple molecules (BeCl2, BCl3,CH4, C2H6,C2H4, C2H2, NH3, H2O, PCl5, SF6)

BondLengths - bond angles and bond energies - postulates ofvalance shellelectron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory - application togeometry ofcovalent molecules (beryllium chloride, boron tri-chloride,water andammonia)

Hydrogen Bond: Concept - inter and intramolecular Hydrogen bonds - typicalexamples.


Definition : Stoichiometry,Stoichiometric Equation, Stoichiometric amounts -Examples

Mole Concept: Gram atom, Gram molecule,Definition of mole, mass, formula weight -Calculations.

Chemical reactions and Numericalcalculations based on weight - weight, weight - volume , volume -volume relationships

Calculation of empirical andmolecular formulae of Carbon compounds -oxidation number - Redoxreactions - Calculation of oxidation number -Balancing of redoxreactions by ion - electron (half reaction) methodand oxidation numbermethod


Gas laws - Boyle's law, Charle'slaw, Avogadro's law - statement and numericalproblems.

Ideal gas equation: PV=nRT, values of R -numerical problems based on gas equation.

Graham'slaw of diffusion - Statement - numericalproblems.

Dalton's law of partial pressures:Statement - numerical problems.

Kinetic theory ofGases: Postulates - derivation of PV= 1/3 mnc2- Deducing gas laws fromkinetic gas laws (Boyles law, Charles law,Dalton's law, Graham's law)from kinetic gas equation - RMS velocity -most probable velocity -Mathematical relationship between the three.Average kinetic energy ofthe molecules.


Definition of solution: Solvent- solute, methods of expressingconcentrations of solutions - molarity,molality, normality - molefraction methods - Numerical problems.

Vapour Pressure: Definition - effect of temperature- Raoult's law - Numerical problems.


Theories of Acids andBases - Arrhenius acid - base concept,limitations, Lowry - Bronstedconcept - examples - limitations - LewisTheory -examples.

Ionic Product of Water: pH of aqueoussolutions - (include bothstrong and weak acids and bases) - buffersolutions - types of buffers,buffer action - calculation of pH of acidbuffers.

Indicators: Acid -base indicators - pH range- selection of indicators for acid - basetitrations.

Hydrolysis of Salts: Definition -examples of different salts.


Metallic Conductors -Electrolytes - Non-electrolytes - Arrhenius theory of ionization -Faraday's laws - Numerical problems.

Galvanic Cells :Definition - examples - cell notation - writing of cells and cellreactions.

Nernst Equation - e.m.f.calculation


Chemical Equilibrium:Reversible reactions - chemicalequilibrium - dynamic nature - examplesof chemical equilibrium, law ofmass action - equilibrium constant -characteristics of equilibriumconstant - factors affecting equilibrium- application of law of massaction to Haber's process (for Ammonia).

Le Chatelier's Principle: Statement andapplications to Haber's process (forAmmonia).

Chemical Kinetics: Rate of reaction(elementary treatment)factors (concentration - temperature, catalyst)affecting rate ofreaction, rate law, rate constant and its units Orderand Molecularity- First order Rate equation and half life - collisiontheory ofreaction rates (elementarytreatment)


Chemical energetics: Internalenergy - enthalpy - exothermic andendothermic reactions - heats ofreaction; formation, combustion,neutralization - Hess Law - Numericalproblems.


Adsorption and absorption -Physical and Chemical adsorption -distinguishing properties -Adsorption of Gases on Metals - Adsorptionfrom solutions (Elementarytreatment).

Colloidal State: True and Colloidalsolutions - explanation ofterms - Dispersion medium, Dispersed phase,lyophillic and lyophobicsols using the examples - smoke, cloud, blood,milk, starch solutionand gold sol. Micelles - cleaning action of soap

Emulsions: emulsifying agent and emulsification -its applications

Catalysts: Explanation of terms -Homogeneous and Heterogeneouscatalysis, Distinction with suitableexamples - auto catalysis with oneexample


Water: Hardness of Water andits removal

Heavy Water: Isotopes of hydrogen - heavywater - electrolytic preparation - properties and uses of heavyWater.

Hydrogen Peroxide: Preparation (laboratory,electrolytic and autooxidation) and concentration, properties of H2O2as oxidizing agent andreducing agent, structure and uses of H2O2


General Characteristics: Electronicconfiguration - position in thelong form of the periodic table - trendsin physical properties,chemical properties with reference to oxides,halides and carbonates.

Sodium and Magnesium:Occurrence - extraction of sodium(Castner and Down process) -extraction of Magnesium (from Carnaliteand Magnasite) - Typicalphysical and chemical properties - Uses.Alloys of magnesium (Magnaliumand Electron) preparation, propertiesand uses of the followingcompounds sodium hydroxide, sodiumbicarbonate, magnesium - sulphate,Plaster of Paris, Lime Mortar andGypsum.


General Characteristics:Electronic configuration - position in thelong form of the periodictable - trends in physical properties -Chemical properties withreference to oxides, halides andhydroxides.

Aluminium: Occurrence - extraction -purification(electrolytic) - typical physical and chemical properties -usesincluding aluminothermic process - Preparation, properties and usesofPotash Alum.

Electron deficient compounds: Conceptand examples, Diborane: Preparation, properties andstructure


General Characteristics:Electronic configuration - position inthe long form of the periodictable - trends in physical properties ofcarbon andsilicon.

Physical forms of Carbon: Allotropy ofcarbon - structure of diamond andgraphite.

Preparation - properties - structure anduses of Silicon and SiO2 . Comparison of SiO2 with CO2..

Fuel gases: Producer gas and water gas - preparation- calorific values and uses.


General Characteristics:Electronic configuration - position inthe long form of the period table- trends in physical properties.

Chemical Propertiesof Compounds of Nitrogen & Phosphorous:Hydrides, Oxides,Halides and structural aspects of Oxy -acids.

Industrial Preparation and Uses of : Ammonia,and Super phosphate of lime.


General Characteristics:Electronic configuration - position inthe long form of the periodictable - trends in physical properties -allotropy ofelements.

Chemical Properties of Compounds of Oxygenand Sulphur: Hydrides, oxides, halides and structural aspects of Oxyacids.

Preparation, properties and uses of Ozone,Sodium thiosulphate.


General Characteristics:Electronic configuration - position inthe long form of the periodictable - trends in physical properties.

Fluorine andChlorine: Preparation, properties and uses. Structure and oxidationstates of Oxides and oxyacids of chlorine.

BleachingPowder: Preparation, properties anduses.


Discovery, Occurrence and isolation.Chemistry of Noble Gases and their uses


General characteristics of:Electronic configuration - position in the long form of the periodictable.

Properties : Oxidation states - colour formingability - alloy formation - magneticproperties

Coordination complexes: Werner's notations(elementary account)


Terminology: Environment,pollutant, contaminant, receptor, sink, speciation, dissolved oxygen,threshold limit.

Air Pollution: Common airpollutants - CO and oxides of Nitrogen and Sulphur - acid rains andgreen house effect

Water pollution: Common Waterpollutants. Organic Pollutants,Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD),Inorganic pollutants - Water treatmentwith respect to fluorine content

Ozone layer and effect of freons(CFC)


Classification - Formation ofsigma and pi bonds. Homologous series - concept and itssignificance.

Isomerism: Concept, Structuralisomerism (chain, position, functionalisomerism).

Nomenclature of Aliphatic Hydro Carbons :IUPAC system

Methane and Ethane: Preparation byreduction of alkyl halides, Wurtzmethod, Grignard method,de-carboxylation, Kolbe's'electrolysis,Sabtier - Senderen's reaction.

Chemical Properties: Halogenation, Nitration,Pyrolysis, Oxidation - Uses

Ethylene: Methods ofpreparation: dehydration of alcohols - dehydrohalogenation ofalkylhalides - dehalogenation ofdihalides.

Properties of Ethylene: Addition ofhydrogen - halogens -hydrogen halides - water - hypohalous acids-mineral acids -polymerisation - oxidation (with Beayers reagent) -ozonolysis - Uses.


Acetylene: preparation -Dehydrohalogenation of 1,2 - dihalides - hydrolysis of CaC2dehalogenation - Kolbe's electrolysis

Properties:Oxidation, addition of hydrogen, halogens, hydrogenhalides and water,trimerization, salt formation, decolorization ofBr2/CCl4 - uses

Benzene: Preparation from acetylene, coal tardistillation, structureof benzene, resonance - aromatic property.Properties: Friedel -Craft's reaction, halogenation, nitration,sulphonation - Uses.


Nomenclature and classificationto Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Alkylhalides

Ethyl Chloride:Preparation - from alcohols using Lucas reagent, PCl3, PCl5 andSOCl2.

Properties: Reduction,hydrolysis, dehydrohalogenation, Wurtzreaction, reactions with KNO2,AgNO2, KCN, AgCN, Mg andsodiumethoxide.

Chloroform:Preparation from ethanol using bleaching powder &water andchloralhydrate. Properties: Oxidation, isocyanide formation -hydrolysis- uses.


Nomenclature andclassification to Primary, Secondary & TertiaryAlcohols

Ethanol: Preparation -Hydrolysis of alkyl halides, hydration ofalkenes, fermentation ofmolasses & starch, Properties: Hydrogenbonding - Reaction withsodium , esterification, action with conc H2SO4, reaction with Lucasreagent, PBr3, PCl5, oxidation with Potassiumdichromate and Cu / 300oc.Combustion, chloroform formation.Differentiation with Lucas reagent -Uses.


Nomenclature -Diethyl ether - Preparation from alcohols-Williamson synthesis -Properties - Reaction withHI-Uses.


Nomenclature -Acetaladehyde & Acetone: Preparations - Oxidation of Alcohols,heating calcium salts.

Properties: oxidation, reductionwith H2 / Ni and LiAlH4, additionof NaHSO3, HCN, NH3, hydroxylamine,phenylhydrazine, 2,4 - DNP, aldolcondensation, oxidation with Tollen'sand Fehlingsreagents.


Nomenclature -Acetic Acid - Preparations - Oxidation of alcohols, aldehydes ,hydrolysis ofcyanides.

Properties: Acidity -reactions with Na, NaOH, NaHCO3,esterification - acid cholrides,anhydrides, amides formation,halogenation -Uses.


Nomenclature -Nitro-Benzene - Preparation - nitration ofBenzene.

Properties : Reduction inacidic , basic, neutral media and with LiAlH4 -Uses

Aniline: Classification ofamines - Preparation : reduction of nitrobenzene. Properties: basicnature - salt formation with HCl,alkylation, N - acetylation, N-benzoyalation , diazotisation -carbylamine reaction -Uses.


Importanceof Metals in the bio molecules viz., Haemoglobin,Cyanocobalamine(Vitamin B12) and chlorophyll (Elementary treatment)

Common Drugs used in Medicine: ActylSalicylic acid (Aspirin) - Paracetamol (Elementary treatment of thesetwo only)



A. Science of Botany: ItsOrigin, Some important landmarks in thedevelopment of Botany, uses ofplants in daily life. Differencesbetween plants andanimals.

B. (i) Diversity in habitats - Mesophytes,Xerophytes, Hydrophytes, Halophytes, Epiphytes, Mangroves
(ii) Diversity in forms - Herbs, Shurbs, Trees, Twiners,Lianes
(iii) Diversity in life span - Ephemerals, Annuals,Biennials, Perennials
(iv) Diversity in nutritional Methods -Parasites, Saprophytes, Symbionts, Autotrophs
C.Branches ofBotany and applied Botany - Phycology, Mycology,Lichenology,Bacteriology, Virology, Microbiology, Bryology,Pteridology, Morphology,Embryology, Palynology, Anatomy, Cytology,Taxonomy, Ecology, Genetics,Paleo-botany, Agriculture, Horticulture,Forestry, Pharmacology, Plantbreeding, Plant pathology,Biotechnology


A. Contributionsof the following institutes - BSI, NBRI, CIMAP, IARI, ICRISAT, FRI,ICAR.
B. Contributions of the following botanists - BirbalSahni, P. Maheswari, M.O.P. Iyengar, M.S. Swaminathan and K.C.Mehta


A. Root: Characteristicsof roots, types of root system, Regions of root, Modifications of root
B. Stem: Characteristics and functions of stem, Types ofstems, Types of buds, Types of branching, modifications of stem
C.Leaf: Leaf base, stipules, petioles. (Note: Lamina,Margins, apex,surface, texture OMITTED), Venation, phyllotaxy, types ofleaves(simple & compound), leafmodifications.


A. Inflorescence: Racemose& cymose inflorescences, mixedand special inflorescences,Terminal inflorescence, Axillaryinflorescence & intercalaryinflorescence, cauliflory
B. Flower:- Structure of flower,sex distribution, symmetry of flower(based on the arrangement),merosity, structural symmetry, position ofgynoecium on the thalamus,types of bracts & bracteoles, varioustypes of thalamus,perianth, aestivation, calyx, corolla, Androecium,Gynoecium
C. Pollination: Types of pollination, contrivances of selfand cross pollination, agents of pollination.
D. Embryology:Structure of anther and ovule, types of ovules,structure anddevelopment of Embryo sac, Fertilization and postfertilization changes.
E. Fruit: Types of fruits - simple, aggregate and multiple,True and false fruits
F. Dispersal of seeds and fruits:Agents of dispersal


A. Principles ofclassification and nomenclature, Bentham & Hookers system ofclassification
B. Study of the following families:-Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae,Liliaceae


Botanical name, family,morphology of useful part, varieties, economicimportance of thefollowing - Paddy, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra, Red gram,Bengal gram,Groundnut, Coconut, Cotton, Jute, Mango, Banana, NeemandAmla


Cell theory, Ultra structureof Eukaryotic cell, differences between plant and animal cells,Chromosomes and Nucleic acids.


Mitosis andmeiosis


A. Tissues: Meristems, Simple,complex and secretory tissues
B. Tissue systems : Epidermal,Ground and vascular tissue systems.
C. Root apex and stemapex
D. Anatomy of dicot and monocot roots
E.Anatomy of dicot and monocot stems
F. Anatomy of dicot& monocot leaves
G. Normal secondary growth in dicotstem


A. Scope andapplications of biotechnology, aspects of biotechnology
B.Genetic engineering
C. Tissue culture and singe cell protein,somatic hybridization
D. Mushroom cultivation (White buttonmushrooms)


A. Broad outlines of theclassifications (cryptogams & phanerogams)
B.Salientfeatures of the major groups - Thallophyta (Algae &Fungi),Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, Spermatophyta (Gymnosperms &angiosperms)
C. Study of the structure and life history ofthe following forms:- Spirogyra, Rhizopus, Funaria, Pteris, &Cycas


A. Branches of appliedMicrobiology and their Importance
B. Bacteria: Introduction,distribution, habitat, Structure, Nutrition, reproduction and economicimportance
C. Viruses: Introduction, structure of TMV& bacteriophage,Multiplication, transmission, symptoms of viraldiseases on plants andtheir controlmeasures.


A. Introduction, briefhistorical account of plant pathology, classification of plantdiseases, general control measures.B. Symptoms, causative organism andcontrol measures of the following diseases - 1. Blast of paddy (Rice)
2. Red rot of sugar cane
3. Grain smut of sorghum
4 . Citrus canker


A. Introduction,scope of ecology, levels of organization, basic concepts of ecology
B. Plant communities - Hydrophytes, Mesophytes, Xerophytes
C.Soil - Soil formation, soil profile, components of soil,plant groupsin relation to soil characteristics, soil erosion, soilconservation(Note: Vegetation of AP and forests of AP - OMITTED)


Introduction, Aims& Objectives of plant breeding, organizations ofcropimprovement research, methods of plant breeding -Introduction,selection, hybridization, Hybrid vigour, Polyploidybreeding, Mutationbreeding


A. Water relations ofplants: Importance of water, availabilityof water, bulk flow,diffusion, Water potential, Osmosis, Plasmolysis,Imbibition -Absorption of water by plants - (Active and passiveabsorption). Ascentof sap - (root pressure theory, cohesion - tensiontheory) Transpiration- Definition, types of transpiration, Structureof stomata, Mechanism ofstomatal opening and closing, factorsaffecting transpiration,importance of transpiration.

B. Mineral Nutrition:Introduction, Macro and Microelements,criteria of essentiality, role ofNPK in plant nutrition, Absorption ofions, (Active and passiveabsorption). Carrier theory (cytochrome pumptheory, Lecithin carriertheory) Fertilisers - (Inorganic, Organic,Bio-Fertilizers) - Importanceof bio fertilizers.

C. Enzymes: Definition,Historical account, Properties,components of enzyme nomenclature andclassification of enzymes. Modeof enzyme action

D.Photosynthesis: Introduction, historical account, structureofchloroplast, Photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophylls, Carotenoids&Phycobilins), Hills reaction, Emerson enhancement effect,photosystems,Photolysis of water, photophosphorylation, C3 pathway, C4pathway, CAMpathway, Photorespiration, factors affectingphotosynthesis, Importanceof photosynthesis.E. Translocation of Organicsolutes: Munchís Hypothesis.

F. Respiration:Introduction, Types of respiration, differencesbetween aerobic& anaerobic respiration - Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle,ElectronTransport System, mechanism of anaerobic respiration,alcoholicfermentation, respiratory quotient (RQ)

G. NitrogenMetabolism: Forms of Nitrogen, biological nitrogenfixation, (Symbiotic& non symbiotic) Bio-synthesis of proteins(Transcription andTranslation), Genetic code and its properties.

H. PlantGrowth Regulators And Seed Germination:Introduction, Discovery& Physiological effects of auxins,gibberellins, cytokinins,abscisic acid and ethylene, Role of hormonesin agriculture andhorticulture, Photoperiodism, Seed germination -Physiological changesduring germination, conditions required forgermination, seed vigour,and seeddormancy.



i) Nature and Scopeof Zoology
ii) Relation between Zoology and Other Sciences
iii) Basic principles of classification
a) Need forclassification
b) Five Kingdom classification, viz., Monera,Protista, Plantae, fungi and Animalia.
c) Concept of species- levels of classification - Binomial nomenclature
d) KingdomProtista - Prokaryotic and Lukaryotic unicellularorganisms.


i) Phylum :Protozoa
ii) Phylum : Porifera
iii) Phylum :Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
iv) Phylum : Platyhelminthes
v) Phylum : Nemathelminthes
vi) Phylum : Annelida
vii) Phylum : Arthropoda
viii) Phylum : Mollusca
ix) Phylum :Echinodermata


i) Symmetry - Types andcharacteristic features of each symmetry,giving an example for eachtype from the representative Phyla -Asymmetry, Radial Symmetry,Biradial symmetry and Bilateral symmetry
ii) Coelom:
a) Formation of coelom
b) Schizocoelic andEnterocoelic coelom
c) Definition of Acoelom, Pseudo-coelom& Coelom - Examples from major Phyla.
iii) Animaltissues


i) Types andStructure of locomotary organelles - Pseudopodia, Cilia &flagellae giving examples.
ii) Amoeboid movement(Pseudopodial movement) - Sol-gel theory only
iii) Ciliaryand flagellar movements - Synchronal and Metachronalmovements (eg.Paramoecium) Effective stroke and recovery stroke (eg.Euglena)
iv) Types of Reproduction:
a) Encystment (eg.Amoeba and Euglena) - Process and its significance (Dissemination andMultiplication).
b) Asexual reproduction - Binary Fission -(types, transverse and longitudinal).
c) Sexual reproduction- conjugation as exemplified by vorticella - its significance


i) Definition and 1 or 2examples of the following associations
a) Mutualism /Symbiosis
b) Commensalism
c) Parasitism
ii) Structure and life cycle of the following parasites
a) Entamoeba histolytica
b) Plasmodium Viva
c) Taenia Solium
d) Wuchereria bancrofti
iii) List of following Parasites giving scientific name,common name,vector, stage of infection, mode of transmission, affectedsystems andname of the diseases caused. Entamoeba gingivalis - Opalina-Balantidium - Giardia - Monocystis - Plasmodium ovale -Palsmodiummalariae - Plasmodium falcifarum Eimeria - Trypanosomagambiensie -Trypanosoma rhodesiensie - Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmaniadonovai,Leishmania tropica - Taenia saginata - Echinococus granulose-Hymenolepis nana - Ascaris lumbricoides - Schistosoma haemotobium-Paragonimus - Ancylostoma duodenale - Enterobius and Loaloa.


Annelida - Pheritima - Type study indetail


i) Cockroach - PeriplanetaAmericana - External characters digestive, respiratory and nervoussystems only.
ii) Life cycle and economic importance of silkworm
iii) Insect mouth parts of the following types:
a) Biting chewing type, eg. Cockroach
b) Piercingand sucking type, eg. Mosquito
c) Sponging and sucking type,eg. Housefly
d) Siphoning type, eg. Butterfly
iv)Economic importance of insects:
a) Useful insects, viz.,Honey bee, Lac insect - their produce and general features.
b) Harmful insects viz., Bed bug, Head Louse. Mosquito andHousefly - their harmful effects and diseases spread bythem.


A. Elementary aspects ofthe following:

i. Abiotic factors - Light,temperature and water - their effects on organisms.
ii.Biotic Factors - producers, consumers and decomposers
iii.Pond Ecosystem - Littoral Zone, Limnetic Zone and profundal zone -Ecological pyramids and energy flow
iv. Population ecology :Population density, growth, age distribution and populationregulation.

B. EnvironmentalPollution:

i) Air Pollution - Primary and SecondaryPollutants - Sulphurdioxide, Nitrous oxide, Particulates, aerosols,carbon monoxide andnoise
ii) Water pollution - pollutants -pesticide, industrial effluents, sewage, heavy metals, radio - activesubstances
iii) Land pollution - Fertilizers, pesticides& Solid waste
iv) Preventive measures ofEnvironmental pollution
v) Wild life conservation
vi) Legislation on environment protection with reference toIndian context.

C. ApplicationBiology:

Biotechnology involved in Alcohal, Enzymes,Antibiotics, monoclonal antibodies, Vaccines andhormones.


A. General characters andout line classification of Chordata upto classes with typicalexamples.B. i) Pisces : Distinctive features of cartilaginous and Bonyfishes, typical Examples
ii) Amphibia: Distinctive featuresof Urodela, Anura and Apoda. Typical Examples.
C. i)Reptilia: Distinctive characters of Squamata,Rhynchocephalia,Crocodilia and Chelonia with typical Examples.
ii) Identification of Poisonous and Non-Poisonous Snakes,Poisonapparatus, Toxicity of snake venom and treatment of snakebiteincluding first aid.
iii) Aves: Distincive features ofCarinatae and Ratitae with typical examples.
iv) Mammalia:Distinctive features of Prototheria, Metatheria andEutheria.


A. Digestive System of Rabbit- Comparison with that of Frog:

Nutrition &Digestion

1. Nutrition - Chemistry of food stuffs(Carbohydrates, Proteins and lipids) Role of Vitamins and Minerals innutrition.
2. Digestion: Digestive enzymes and theirmechanism of action - the sequence of digestion and absorption
B. Respiratory system of Rabbit - Mechanism of Respirationand Transport of respiratory gases.
C. Circulatory system ofRabbit
i) Structure of Heart, Arterial and venous systems -comparison with those of Frog
ii) Working of the heart ofRabbit
iii) Coagulation ofblood


A. Excretory system of Rabbit- Comparison with that of Frog

i) Structure andfunction of Nephron.
ii) Urine formation and its composition

B. Musculo - Skeletal System:

i)Ultra structure and contraction of muscle sliding filament theorysystem
ii) Types of Joints

C. Reproductivesystem of Rabbit - Comparison with that of Frog - Structure

i) Fertilization
ii) Development of Rabbitupto gastrulation, gestation and viviparity

D.Central Peripheral and autonomous Nervous systems in brief . NameandRoman nomenclature of cervical nerves , types - motor sensory&mixed nerves

E. Endocrine system -Endocrine glands [ Pitutary, thyroid,parathyroid, adrenal ( midula andcortex), Pancreas, Ovary &Testes] and the role of theirhormones .


A. Mendelís Laws
B. Sex determination
C. i) Sex determination X0,ZZ, ZW to Honey bee methods, Secondary sex differences - role ofHormones
ii) Sex linked inheritence X, Y, XY, incomplete, sexlimited and sex influenced inheritance
D. Gene expression andgene regulation
E. Blood groups - Their inheritance (ABO& Rh) -Rh factors, significance in pregnancy and transfusion


A. i) Origin of life
ii) Theories of Organic evolution - Lamarck, Darwin, Devries
B.Modern Concepts - Variations - Hardy Weinberg equilibrium,Naturalselection - Gene pool speciation - macro and micro evolution -drift
C. Evidence of organicevolution


A i) Poultry
Layers andBroilers
Poultry diseases ( Bacterial, Viral and fungal)
ii) Animal breeding in Dairy and Poultry - Cloning
B. Immunity disorders - AIDS, Hepatitis and Allergicreactions

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