Microsoft SQL Server 2000 SP3 (SP3A) has introduced many security fixes, changes in functionality, and new features. In this article, I'm going to discuss one of the new features introduced in SP3, the fn_get_sql() function and the 3 new columns added to sysprocesses system table. The three new columns are:
|Column name ||Data type ||Description|
| sql_handle || binary(20) || Contains a handle to the currently executing batch/query/stored procedure. |
| stmt_start || int || Starting offset of the current SQL statement for the specified sql_handle. |
| stmt_end || int || Ending offset of the current SQL statement for the specified sql_handle. |
-1 indicates that the current statement runs to the end of the results returned by the fn_get_sql function for the specified sql_handle.
The new diagnostic function fn_get_sql() can be used to inspect a particular process (spid) to see which line of code is currently being executed. As I said, this is a diagnostic function, and it can be used to troubleshoot long running stored procedures and identify performance issues. This function accepts sql_handle (obtained from sysprocesses table) of a spid, as a parameter, and retrieves information about that spid. The other new columns, stmt_start and stmt_end are used to determine, which line of code (of the batch or stored procedure) is being executed (At the end of this article.
Prior to the release of SP3, we relied on the command DBCC INPUTBUFFER to see what code/query a particular process was executing. But it has some limitations. DBCC INPUTBUFFER can only display the first 255 characters of the batch or stored procedure. Also, DBCC INPUTBUFFER only displays the first command executed by the process. That is, nested stored procedure calls are not displayed. Meaning, if spid 55 executes procedure proc_1 and proc_1 calls another procedure proc_2, which in turn calls proc_3 and you execute DBCC INPUTBUFFER while proc_3 is being executed, you will see proc_1 as the output, not proc_3. fn_get_sql() overcomes all these problems, and can be used to pinpoint the line of code that is being currently executed.
For a given process, fn_get_sql() returns the following resultset (taken from SQL Server Books Online):
|Column name ||Data type ||Description|
|dbid ||smallint ||Database ID. Is NULL for ad hoc SQL statements.|
|objectid ||Int ||ID of the database object. Is NULL for ad hoc SQL statements.|
|number ||smallint ||The number of the group, if the procedures are grouped. Is 0 for entries that are not procedures and NULL for ad hoc SQL statements.|
|encrypted ||Bit ||Indicates whether the object is encrypted. |
0 = Not encrypted
1 = Encrypted
|text ||Text ||Text of the SQL statement. Is NULL for encrypted objects.|
SQL Server 2000 Books Online (btw, you need to get the updated Books Online that got released with SP3) states that some SQL statements cannot be cached, and fn_get_sql() cannot inspect such processes. That is what I found in my testing as well. But I managed to find handles for almost all stored procedure calls. For more information and comments on fn_get_sql(), read up SQL Server Books Online.
Now it is time to see the new function in action. The following stored procedure 'ShowCodeLine' returns the currently executing line of a given spid. It accepts the following two parameters:
|Parameter name ||Data type ||Description|
| @SPID || int || The process identification number (SPID) of a process to be examined. You can obtain the spid of a process, by looking at master.dbo.sysprocesses directly, or by running sp_who or sp_who2. You could also get the spid of a process from Profiler output. This is a mandatory parameter. |
| @WAIT || tinyint || This procedure ShowCodeLine inspects the specified process, repeatedly in an infinite loop, until the process completes. By specifying a valid value for this parameter, you could slow down the looping by the specified number of seconds. You could specify a value (in seconds) between 0 and 60 for this parameter. Default is 0. While inspecting a long running process a value >= 1 seconds would be ideal, to avoid too many output rows. |
| @NoLoop || bit || Defaults to 0. When 0, this procedure inspects the specified spid continuously, at specified intervals, until the spid completes. When 1, the specified spid will be examined only once, and the procedure terminates. |
ShowCodeLine returns a value of 0 on successful completion, and -1 in case of any failures.
This procedure can be created in any database.
WHERE ROUTINE_NAME = 'ShowCodeLine'
AND ROUTINE_SCHEMA = 'dbo'
AND ROUTINE_TYPE = 'PROCEDURE'
PRINT 'Procedure ShowCodeLine already exists...Dropping it and recreating'
DROP PROC dbo.ShowCodeLine
PRINT 'Creating procedure ShowCodeLine'
CREATE PROC dbo.ShowCodeLine
@WAIT tinyint = 0,
@NoLoop bit = 0
--Author: Narayana Vyas Kondreddi
--Date Created: 20031016
SET NOCOUNT ON
DECLARE @sql_handle binary(20), @handle_found bit
DECLARE @stmt_start int, @stmt_end int
DECLARE @line nvarchar(4000), @wait_str varchar(8)
SET @handle_found = 0
IF @WAIT NOT BETWEEN 0 AND 60
RAISERROR('Valid values for @WAIT are from 0 to 60 seconds', 16, 1)
SET @wait_str = '00:00:' + RIGHT('00' + CAST(@WAIT AS varchar(2)), 2)
WHILE 1 = 1
SELECT @sql_handle = sql_handle,
@stmt_start = stmt_start/2,
@stmt_end = CASE WHEN stmt_end = -1 THEN -1 ELSE stmt_end/2 END
WHERE spid = @SPID
AND ecid = 0
IF @sql_handle = 0x0
--If you are running this on SQL Server 2005, then change the above line to the following:
IF(@sql_handle = 0x0) OR (@stmt_start = 0 AND @stmt_end = 0)
--Without this change, this procedure might go into an infinite loop and needs to be killed
--In SQL Server 2000, as soon as a batch completed,
--the sql_handle column in sysprocesses becomes 0, but that's not the case in SQL Server 2005
IF @handle_found = 0
RAISERROR('Cannot find handle or the SPID is invalid', 16, 1)
RAISERROR('Query/Stored procedure completed', 0, 1)
SET @handle_found = 1
SET @line =
COALESCE(NULLIF(@stmt_start, 0), 1),
(@stmt_end - @stmt_start)
RAISERROR(@line, 0, 1) WITH NOWAIT
IF @NoLoop = 1
WAITFOR DELAY @wait_str
Now, to examine a process with spid 55, run the following:
EXEC dbo.ShowCodeLine 55
To examine a process with spid 55, but every 2 seconds (instead of the default 0 seconds):
EXEC dbo.ShowCodeLine 55, 2
In the stored procedure, notice that I used RAISERROR...WITH NOWAIT, to display the output. I did this, so that the output can be seen in Query Analyzer instantly (because of the NOWAIT parameter). But RAISERROR has a limitation, in that it only displays up to 400 characters. If you need to display more than 400 characters, replace the RAISERROR call with a SELECT, to display @wait_str. But the output of SELECT statement will not be displayed until the procedure completes or the output buffer is full. Also, if your Query Analyzer output mode is set to 'Grid' instead of 'Text', then remember to look at the 'Messages' tab of Query Analyzer's results pane, for output.
Here is a quick way to test the procedure 'ShowCodeLine':
1. Open two query windows in your Query Analyzer (QA) and make sure, both the windows are connect to the same SQL Server instance.
2. In the first window, create the following stored procedure:
CREATE PROC dbo.TestProc
WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:01' --Waits for 1 second
WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:02' --Waits for 2 seconds
WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:03' --Waits for 3 seconds
WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:04' --Waits for 4 seconds
WAITFOR DELAY '00:00:05' --Waits for 5 seconds
Because of the WAITFOR commands, the above stored procedure runs for at least 15 seconds. That is a good enough duration for us to examine this procedure using ShowCodeLine.
3. Now record the spid of this first Query Analyzer connection using the system variable @@SPID:
Note down the resulting spid number from the above command, as we will need to pass it to ShowCodeLine, in the second Query Analyzer window. For this example's sake, assume that the output was 625.
4. In the same Query Analyzer window (first one), run the procedure TestProc:
5. Quickly switch to the second Query Analyzer window and execute ShowCodeLine, by passing the previously recorded spid:
EXEC dbo.ShowCodeLine 625
In the 'Messages' tab of the second Query Analyzer window's results pane, you will see the code lines from the procedure TestProc being displayed as they are executed.
Note: When you try to examine the spid of an extended stored procedure, using ShowCodeLine, you will only see the name of the extended stored procedure in the output.
As you just observed, you could use ShowCodeLine to see what line of code, a long running stored procedure is currently executing. Also, when a particular stored procedure is blocked, you could use ShowCodeLine to see which line of that stored procedure is blocked. This is especially useful for long batches or lengthy stored procedures. This procedure can be used in conjunction with SQL Profiler for effective troubleshooting and performance tuning of queries.
Before we end, here is a list of SQL Server performance tuning books. Hope you find them as useful as I did.